大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲(下)

2021-10-29 16:38| 发布者: ywen| 查看: 438| 评论: 0 |原作者: 文 / 大喇叭

简介:1980年代后期仍然是唱片业的鼎盛时期,那时的唱片公司已经停止了黑胶唱片的发行而转向了CD。市场上,CD的曲目急速增加,而黑胶唱片开始变得不再时髦,在降价处理、走下坡路了。那时候,我完全不了解演奏家和音乐作品 ...
1980年代后期仍然是唱片业的鼎盛时期,那时的唱片公司已经停止了黑胶唱片的发行而转向了CD。市场上,CD的曲目急速增加,而黑胶唱片开始变得不再时髦,在降价处理、走下坡路了。那时候,我完全不了解演奏家和音乐作品,只知道肖邦是钢琴第一重要的作曲家,也听过鲁宾斯坦的肖邦夜曲、圆舞曲等。

伦敦不仅有五个世界一流的交响乐团(更有二流,三流以及不入流的业余演出团体和小组,但水准极高),一流的芭蕾舞团和歌剧院以及丰富的演出活动,还有很多唱片公司,音乐杂志,唱片店等等。在公交车两站路的范围内,伦敦牛津街上有HMV三家大店,包括HMV总店,有楼上楼下四层;还有面积更大的Virgin Records总店,是三个建筑的合成,也有楼上楼下三层。在Piccadilly Circus另有Tower Records总店,都是唱片业的巨型零售店。那些店有多大?大到超出你的想象,在里面可以逛到你走不动!东西有多少?多到你看不过来,也不可能都看过来!如果不是按部门再分门别类地去找,你就无法找到感兴趣的东西。即便是找到了古典音乐部(另有各类流行音乐,爵士乐,乡村音乐,电影音乐,录像带和激光视盘LD,图书相册poster等部门),你也不一定能找到你感兴趣的东西,除非是向店员讨教。一个例子:我看到店员应顾客询问,翻出来一个“鞋盒子”,里面都是斯托克豪森Stockhausen的音乐CD——他的CD是不通过唱片公司发行的。你不去问,哪里找得到?而且,那些店员可不是只管上货、收款的。他们知道主要音乐家录制、出版唱片的情况。更是熟知什么地方、谁谁谁开的什么店,可以买到什么唱片。那些店员简直就是些活百科全书!唱片店里从早到晚播放音乐,也摆放各种唱片目录和参考书,供顾客翻阅。

我经常去那些店“过干瘾”(北京话:只看不买)。不仅是因为囊中羞涩(当时我在国内的工资大概只相当于一张CD钱),也是因为无法搬回来。即便只是看,那也是莫大的享受啊,是小孩子进了糖果店一样的感觉:一切都想要,眼睛放着光,内心被欲望和饥渴所占据!不仅是眼睛看,耳朵还在听。有一次,听到了播放拉赫玛尼诺夫第三钢琴协奏曲。那个版本在第一乐章中段的华彩乐段十分特别,音符几乎都被拉成了等长,那是一个很有特色的处理,印象深刻!真后悔当时没有问一下是谁弹的。现在也没有办法来找了。

大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线

但是!居然有一天我碰上了HMV大减价,海量的CD和LP都是半价!几乎没有犹豫,我立即醒悟到:出手的时候到了!挤在人头攒动的人群里——英国人遇到大减价也不讲绅士了,抢了许多CD。我在那里转了挑了许久,直到站不住、拿不动,直到商店关门而不得不离开为止。就这样,那天抢到的降价CD里碰巧就有这张波利尼的肖邦第一钢琴协奏曲。都是半价处理,但都是新的!大概那时的我和大多数人一样,相信作为新技术的CD,它更高的物理指标,而且永不磨损,所以是最好的选择。后悔的是那时候没有更多地搜集黑胶唱片——那都是些未开封的新唱片呀!

大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线Maurizio Pollini, 1960 (Photo: EMI Archives) _作者提供
大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线珀利尼在制作肖邦录音的现场 Maurizio Pollini and Paul Kletzki at the recording sessions, April 1960(Photo: Godfrey MacDomnic)_作者提供

波利尼录制的肖邦第一钢琴协奏曲,是由波兰指挥家Paul Kletzki指挥英国爱乐乐团在EMI的录音。录音是在EMI Abbey Road Studio一号录音室进行。时间是1960年4月20、21日。录音师是Neville Boyling。这个堪称里程碑的录音,60年来一直很难超越。

这个录音,英国EMI至少发行过四次黑胶唱片(ASD370,ALP1784,SXLP 30160和HIQLP系列),另外至少还发行了六次CD(见附图)。CD的发行,几乎每一次都是重新digital remastering(即数码制版)。各个版本依次是:

大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线
① 1987版 —EMI studio DRM 系列(应该是第一版,德国压片)
Producer: Peter Andry, Balance Engineer: Neville Boyling. Digital remastered by EMI in 1987。包括1970年录制的肖邦叙事曲,夜曲和波兰舞曲,1985年数码制版。
大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线
② 1992版 —EMI studio plus系列(荷兰压片)
Digital remastering 1987 by EMI Records Ltd.  This compilation 1992 by EMI Records Ltd.
大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线
③ 1992版 —Great Classical Recordings系列
大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线
④ 1997版  —EMI 100 周年纪念版(荷兰压片)
Digital remastering 1997 by EMI Record Ltd.  This compilation 1992 by EMI Records Ltd. 1997 EMI Records Ltd. 
大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线
⑤ 2001版—EMI Great Recordings of the Century系列(EU制作)
采用EMI最新数码技术处理“art” —Abbey Road Technology
Digital remastered by Allan Ramsay at Abbey Road Studios, 2001。附有一些1960年珍贵的历史相片。
大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线
⑥ 2012版 — Warner Classics收购EMI之后新制作的版本
Digital remastered in 2001 by EMI

因为是同一个录音,在音乐的艺术处理上是没有区别的。这里只对4个CD版本:即①、②、④、⑤在音响效果方面进行比较。录音质量的比较是各个版本之间的区别。而录音效果的标尺,即最高水准,是指现代的录音或是1970年代末的模拟录音。

试听采用的是英国调声的马兰士6006 CD机,LUXMAN C-383前级和M-383后级,推KEF 105/3音箱,都是些音乐性较好而解析力不是最高的器材。如果采用ESOTERIC CD机,B&W 801监听音箱就会展示更多细节和层次。这几个版本的区别可能会更加明显,版本①和②高音突出而且发硬的问题有可能会更加严重。

①1987版 —EMI studio DRM系列
录音总体的高、中、低频平衡很好。但是层次和细节稍少。高频稍硬一些,颗粒有些粗,尤其是小提琴,似乎钢弦有点像铁丝的感觉。单簧管和双簧管的声音也有些发硬,有些扭曲了似的。钢琴的声音很好,冲击,力度,光辉,共鸣以及下潜等都好,但是不能和七十年代末的模拟录音高峰时期相比。

总体来讲,录音质量相当好,不像是1960年的录音。主要缺陷是声音的极高频和极低频少一些,细节和层次有所欠缺。如果与最高质量相比,可以打85-90分。

② 1992版 —EMI studio plus系列
录音效果相当好,声音平衡,很真实但不是一流的。听得出来这不是现代的录音,因为没有极高频泛音和极低频。动态范围小一些,冲击力也小一些。录音主要的问题是弦乐颗粒粗,尤其是小提琴的颗粒粗比较突出,声音稍有压迫感。但是,比如双簧管,粗颗粒问题没有这样严重。对比1987版,空间感、活生感似乎稍微有所提升(尽管是同一个数码制版!—旦采用不同的片基,声音也可能会有不同!)。钢琴声音比较真实,现场感好一些。总体改变不大。

④ 1997版
对比上面两个版本,声音效果的提升比较明显。录音效果相当好,几乎没有历史录音那些缺陷:高、低音缺失,动态范围小,乐器的音色失真,背景噪音大,复印等。但是毕竟因为历史原因,录音效果还是不能和现代录音相比。主要表现在细节和层次少,音色不是最完美和真实。总体来讲,低音也是稍有欠缺,层次偏少;极高频泛音也偏少。

首先,钢琴的声音几乎是完美无缺的,富有光泽和冲击力。如果是只听钢琴的话,几乎是无懈可击。录音有一些失真的是在乐队。主要是弦乐,感觉颗粒有些粗,甚至是单簧管在某些乐段(只限个别地方,比如第三乐章中)也有颗粒粗的感觉。总体来讲,声音不是很真实(但也许和该乐器的音质有关)。

对比1992年版:似乎录音的现场感和真实感有所提升。动态和冲击力也稍有改进。也许应该归功于数码处理软件的进步,使声音质量有所提升。在这四个版本之中,这个1997版本的音色是最柔和的。似乎减少了一些泛音的光芒,弦乐的压迫感也稍有减弱。

⑤ 2001版
听得出来在1997版本之上总体的提升,但是区别不太大。声音的改变主要是在乐队,而钢琴声音的清晰度稍有提升,但不太明显。这个版本,明显的是把弦乐的声音提升了一些,声音变得稍微锐利点,也更清晰了。这是晶体管的声音,如果在监听音箱上听,高音是不是会稍有发硬?声音的处理更符合现代口味,完全听不出来是1960年的录音。另外,总体来讲:art的数码处理使临场感提高了-——这是最重要的一点。

大喇叭听音乐 | 我听肖邦的二首钢琴协奏曲下_视听前线
上部分的短文是2020年分三次写的。当时我找到了第一协奏曲4个版本的CD(如右图)进行了比较——够“拼命三郎”了吧?现在得以在B&W801音箱上仔细比较,故再次补充。

这次对比的CD碟片是②和⑤,黑胶唱片是EMI SXLP 30160荷兰压片。

这次有如下发现:

CD②是Digital remastering 1987 by EMI。它的声音,主要是弦乐稍微发干,有的地方有些年代感—即超高和超低频缺失,临场感不是最强。但总体来讲,声音是通透的,润色、平衡好,立体三维感好,钢琴十分真实,现场感不错,感觉不到数码声。比黑胶唱片(SXLP 30160)好一些,主要是真实,三维空间感上了一个档次。

CD⑤是Digital remastered 2001 by EMI,采用EMI数码技术处理“art” — Abbey Road Technology。它的声音效果有提升,电平稍高一些。总体声音更好,这证明art技术有益。

对比CD②,弦乐发干的现象似乎有所改善,临场感更好,低频下潜也稍稍好了一些。声音更真实,更接近现代录音效果。模拟的感觉更好,没有数码声。art技术很好,使声音更加自然、真实,也更接近理想状态。对比②和⑤,声音可以说是有7%-10%的提升,明显的有进步。

总体而言,EMI的这个录音质量相当完好,完全不像是1960年的。不过,也不能和当代的录音相比,比如90年代中期及其以后的录音。在这4个CD版本里,声音效果总体的提升和改变不是太大。如果要量化的话,可以说音响效果的总体提升是在10%以内。4个版本当中,①的原始层次细节稍多,声音的光泽在。相比之下,泛音细节稍多,重要的是保留了电子管温暖的声音。这个版本可以作为最好的一个版本。⑤声音的现场感有所提升,是现代口味,是晶体管声音。也是声音最好的一个版本。

如果要买这个CD,版本①或者是版本⑤可以作为第一选择。


附录:亚马逊网上一些听众的评论

如果用一句话概括下面的评论,可以说:波利尼的肖邦第一钢琴协奏曲,六十年来证明是一座丰碑,甚至可以说是典范。
(我把其中的一个评论翻译如下)

“2005年,一位英国人这样评论到:“不能更好了!”波里尼(Pollini)在区区18岁的年纪,制作了这个极具权威性、技术上无懈可击的录音。并且,他完全没有炫技或是做作的意思。他的演绎简直是令人震惊。

也许最好是看看别人的意见—一位《留声机》杂志(1923年创刊,最有影响力的英国音乐杂志—大喇叭注)评论员宣称,他不指望可以在他的有生之年听到这部协奏曲更好的演绎了。

我只能说,在我听过的全部音乐里面,这是最杰出的一个录音。我是听过许多音乐的,而这张唱片是绝对必要购买的。”

↓ 滚动阅读更多听众评论原文
Dr R
TOP 500 REVIEWER
5.0 out of 5 stars “Performances that remain amongst the very best”
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 27 February 2019

This recording of the Chopin’s First Piano Concerto was made in 1960, shortly after Pollini had won that year’s Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw at the age of eighteen. It was reissued in stereo in 1997 as one of thirty recordings in EMI’s 1897-1997 100 Years of Great Music series. Subsequently it was included in that company’s Great Recordings of the Century series.

That it completely lives up to these high expectations is due to the soloist’s youthful exuberance and virtuosity, but also to the sensitive conducting of Paul Kletzki, 1900-73 who, until 1942, was more active as a composer. His peripatetic post-war career on the podium is not too well reflected in today’s CD recordings but his musicianship is evident from this performance of the concerto with the Philharmonia Orchestra. This CD also contains outstanding performances of four of the composer’s better known solo pieces, recorded by Pollini in 1968. Later in his career, he developed a style that focused on precision of expression and excessively controlled emotion which I find less approachable.

Frequently performances of Chopin’s piano concertos are vehicles for technical accomplishment with the orchestral accompaniment being little more than that. This was Pollini’s first recording and, perhaps because of this and the differences in age and experience of soloist and conductor, it comes across as a truly integrated performance with both musicians united in their conception of the twenty-year-old composer’s vision.

The remaining solo pieces are much more than mere fillers. As with the concerto, the lyricism of the playing is intensely impressive and reveals a combination of power and genuine warmth that is especially pleasurable. Pollini’s choice of tempi and dynamics seem very natural so that, even though these four works are familiar, the soloist encourages the listener to hear them anew.

The recording sound is good with soloist and orchestra very well balanced. The booklet text by Max Harrison comments on the works played without any details about the pianist or conductor, or describing the enthusiasm with which Pollini’s Warsaw victory was received.

Overall, these remain outstanding recordings that set standards that few other pianists match. Pollini has recorded and recorded a wide range of 19th- and 20th-century music but the performances on this CD, and his recordings of the composer’s Etudes remain classics.

Stanley Crowe
5.0 out of 5 stars “indispensable”
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 16 August 2013

Pollini's 1960 recording of the Chopin First Piano Concerto is generally accepted as a classic of recorded music, and I'm in total agreement. Anyone who still thinks of Pollini as a "cold" interpreter needs to listen to the second movement here. Nothing is sentimentally drawn-out or over-pedalled: the thing is just set before you in all its beauty. There's no attempt to disguise the piano as anything but a percussion instrument, but the judgment in the striking of the keys and the coherence of the phrasing reminds us how a great artist can make the piano speak in as many voices as there are pieces to play. This seems to me Pollini's great gift -- you can call him "objective," but the great objective performer characterizes and expresses the object that he is creating as the distinct thing it is. Hence the four Nocturnes here, for example, are four distinct and distinctively beautiful objects, if you like. And -- to return to the concerto -- the first movement has things in common with the third, but where in the first we have "risoluto" in the third we have (with no lack of "risoluto") wit and playfulness too. Kletzki accompanies positively and alertly, alive to the different characters of the movements, and totally in synch with his soloist. There are other good Chopin concerto recordings, but there's nothing quite like this one.

Note: These recordings have appeared at least three times earlier in different "looks" from EMI, so be sure you don't double-buy. This one is 2012, but the remastering goes back to 2001. I don't know whether to call EMI shameless in their repackaging or whether to applaud them for at least knowing what's worth repackaging!

I. Giles
HALL OF FAMETOP 500 REVIEWER
5.0 out of 5 stars “A true classic recording of this concerto unwithered by age”
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 12 November 2013

This disc offers a compilation of the very famous recording of the first piano concerto from 1960 and a selection of other works recorded in 1968. The latter selection focusses in on four nocturnes followed by the first ballade and the sixth polonaise.

Pollini made the concerto recording just after winning the Chopin competition at just 18 years of age. The combination of technical perfection allied to a sensitive response to the music was, and remains, totally special. At no time does his technical capability become openly apparent as in the case of Horowitz for example and his approach to musical phrasing and expression is almost akin to differences in breathing so constantly subtle are the constant fluctuations. I this he is wonderfully supported by Kletzki's superb conducting which is also special but rarely remarked upon.

The solo works are also well chosen and concentrate on Pollini's clarity and warmth of line. Some of his later recordings came over as cool to the point of being clinical and the technical perfection and objectivity when matched with the showier pieces could seem cold emotionally. None of this applies to these pieces which make for a very satisfying encore to the concerto.

However, it is for the concerto that most will be interested in this disc. Many will want to know if the latest remastering has improved on previous editions. The answer, in my opinion, is definitely a yes. There is added clarity, tonal warmth, depth of sound-stage and an overall increased sense of realism in the sound. No-one would begin to guess at the real age of the recordings, so well have they been remastered.

I would suggest that this disc is a very tempting proposition for both newcomers and also for those interested in investing in the latest remastering.

Gerry 'M'
5.0 out of 5 stars “Worthy of a 6th star!”
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 16 January 2012

Why has it taken so long for me to find out this disc existed? Thank you David Mellor for the mention of it in your erudite review on Pollini at 70! I have long enjoyed Pollini's complete set of the Beethoven Piano concertos - reckoned to be one of the best ever - but his Chopin interpretations at the age of 18 (for me at least) enter a new dimension. The digitally remastered recordings are brilliant and Pollini's technique is totally assured and faultless. This is most definitely a 'MUST HAVE' compilation at a bargain price.

Bill Glen
5.0 out of 5 stars “Playing with elegance and heart”
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 24 February 2014

Ocassionally, in Pollini's later celebrated Chopin readings for DG I find myself admiring the beautiful playing on display rather than feeling the poetry within the music being released. Travelling back to the young Pollini and this famous recording of the first piano concerto I have no such doubts as this noble reading is vividly, beautifully, projected and remains an essential classic recording of this work.



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